UK tax system overview

What is fiscal year in the UK?

The fiscal year in the UK is not the same as the calendar year.
The fiscal year is 1 April to 31 March. Government budgeting and tax regulations follow the fiscal year.

What is financial year in the UK?

The financial year can be the fiscal year or the calendar year or any chosen 12-month period.
The financial year can be chosen after registering the company and can also be altered at any time if you wish to shorten it. Extending your financial year is possible the maximum length is 18 months unless the company is in administration. This can only be done once every 5 years.
It typically runs from 1 April to 31 March for large UK businesses because of the fiscal year. Financial years are named according to the calendar year in which they end.

What is an accounting period in the UK?

An accounting period in the UK is normally 12-month period on which Corporation Tax is calculated. It usually is identical with company’s financial year ending with annual accounts.

What is personal tax year in the UK?

The personal tax year runs from 6 April to 5 April.
The tradition goes back to medieval times and it was originally based on the church year

Who collects taxes in the UK?

Taxation in the UK may involve payments to a minimum of three different levels of government: the central government agency Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC) devolved national governments and local government. Central government revenue comes primarily from income tax, National Insurance(NI) contributions, value added tax (VAT), corporation tax(CT) and fuel duty. Local government revenues come primarily from grants from central governments funds, business rates in England and Wales and council tax from households

What are the mandatory financial statements for a ltd company?

At the end of each accounting period, each company must report their financial results in the prescribed formats of annual accounts and Company Tax Return CT600.

Annual accounts are submitted to Companies House in abbrieviated form and full accounts to HM Revenue and Customs together with the Company Tax Return.

Self-employed sole traders, partners in business partnerships and company directors must register for Self-Assessment tax return.

What are the mandatory elements of annual accounts in the UK?

Annual accounts also called statutory accounts must include a balance sheet (statement of financial position), a profit and loss account (income statement), notes and director’s report.
Depending on the company size you might have to add auditor’s report.

How have taxes evolved in the UK?

Income tax was first introduced during the Napoleonic wars and re-introduced for good in 1842. Companies were part of the income tax system until 1965, when corporation tax was introduced. Personal income tax basic rate was reduced from 33% to 20% during the 1979-2007 governments. The predecessor of VAT from 1940 to 1973 was the Purchase Tax. The rate of Purchase Tax at the start of 1973 was 25%. The VAT standard rate has been increased from 10% after its introduction in 1973, when the UK joined European Economic Community, to 20% effective from January 2011.

What are largest sources of tax revenues in the UK?

Personal income tax is the largest source of revenues for the UK government. The second largest source is National Insurance Contributions, the third value added tax (VAT) and the fourth largest is corporation tax.

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